Hello readers, believe or not COP21 will be happened in less than 24 hours ! Starting from tomorrow, more than 100 world leaders including Malaysia will negotiate on climate change’s issue. You can read our article on Road to COP21 Paris Background for more information on COP21. Wonder what Malaysia is doing to tackle climate change’s issue so far? Lets take a look Malaysia’s position on climate change.
one more day
Malaysian Position on Climate Change
Climate scientists agree that climate change is occurring and greenhouse gases emitted by human activities are the main reasons. Negative impacts and threats to ecological system, human health, Earth’s physical and economic are likely to be real if there is no mitigating actions are taken. Hence, during COP15, Malaysia has agreed to cut 40% in emissions intensity by the year 2020 compared to the 2005 levels. Malaysia has set up many emission reduction initiatives to meet the goal. Among Malaysia initiative is on renewable energy (RE).
Renewable energy is an energy obtained from natural resource such as biomass, hydro, wind, solar and geothermal that can be replenished. Renewable energy can be used as a replacement of fossil fuel in energy generation and using renewable energy instead of fossil fuel can reduce greenhouse gas emission.
Thus, Malaysia has launched the National Renewable Energy Policy 2010 to improve renewable energy’s development in Malaysia. The aim of National RE Policy 2010 is to enhance the utilization of indigenous renewable energy resources to contribute towards national electricity supply security and sustainable socio-economic development. This policy consists of five objectives that are:-
- (1) To increase RE contribution in the national power generation mix.
- (2) To facilitate the growth of the RE industry.
- (3) To ensure reasonable RE generation costs.
- (4) To conserve the environment for future generation.
- (5) To enhance awareness on the role and importance of RE.
In order to ensure the objectives of National RE Policy 2010 is achieved, five strategic thrusts have been identified as per below:-
- (1) Thrust 1: Introduce appropriate regulatory framework.
- (2) Thrust 2: Provide conducive-environments for RE businesses.
- (3) Thrust 3: Intensify human capital development.
- (4) Thrust 4: Enhance RE research and development.
- (5) Thrust 5: Design and implement an RE advocacy program.
Thrust 1 : Introduce appropriate regulatory framework
Renewable Energy Act has been launched on 2011 to support Thrust 1. The Act is to provide establishment and implementation of a special tariff system (Feed in tariff system) to catalyze the generation of renewable energy and to provide for related matters. The act consists of a feed in tariff system, connection, purchase and distribution of renewable energy, feed in tariff, renewable energy fund, information gathering powers, enforcement, general, savings and transitional.
In the same year, SEDA Act 2011 also launched. The act is aimed to provide for the establishment of the Sustainable Energy Development Authority Malaysia (SEDA Malaysia) and to provide for its functions and powers and for related matters.
Thrust 2 : Provide conducive-environment for RE businesses
The conducive environment would include the provision of :-
- Creation of an evaluation process for lending to RE power producers.
The standard evaluation process will be set up by trained renewable energy financing team. Mandating the evaluation process can be undertaken by Bank Negara Malaysia. The evaluation is to provide added security to the financial institutions in lending to renewable energy power generation projects. As a stand-by provision, the government offer financial assistance, estimated RM500 million to renewable energy power generation firms that are unable to secure any funding.
- Continuation of existing fiscal incentives
Existing fiscal incentives will be continued until 2019. Meanwhile, an evaluation of the incentives’s relevance and usefulness to firms will be undertaken over 4 years from renewable energy law enforcement. The evaluation is to determine if any revisions on the fiscal incentives are required or not.
- Special fiscal reliefs to use locally created/developed R&D
Special fiscal reliefs will be given to firms that adopt and use locally created or developed R&D for renewable energy. The special fiscal reliefs are:
- (a) Group tax relief – so losses in one subsidiary can be used to offset the profits in another; and
- (b) Double deduction of the costs of the local innovation or R&D in RE technology used
4. Local content incentives
Incentives will be given to renewable energy manufacturer that use local material in their finished products and component. The incentives would be double deduction on local material for domestic manufacturer and for foreign manufacturer that use more than 50% local content, the incentive would be 2 years tax holiday extended or the grant of 2 years tax holiday.
- Create an RE Centre for SMEs
The RE Centre focus on providing information about renewable energy project to SMEs and assisting SMEs to participate in incentive programs.
- Involve GLCs and specifying their RE contribution by using their existing renewable energy resource for renewable energy power generation or demonstrating their renewable energy projects and technologies.
- Involve existing MNCs like IKEA, Western Digital, INTEL and others to engage in renewable energy activities and to influence local suppliers to do likewise.
Thrust 3 : Intensify human capital development
There are three actions under Thrust 3 which are:-
1) Collaboration amongst ministries to design certifying renewable energy technology courses at a local institute of higher learning and also training centers.
2) Increase the development of training institutes that meet international renewable energy training standard and also development of centers of excellence (CoE) at universities.
3) Provide technical training subsidy and fiscal relief for higher education. The subsidy and fiscal relief valid for renewable energy course only.
Thrust 4 : Enhance RE research and development
The focus of renewable energy research and development is on innovation as innovation enhances the diffusion of renewable energy technology by making the technology cheaper and easier to use. Several research that have been done are wind mapping, geothermal study and mini hydro map.
Thrust 5 : Design and implement an RE advocacy program
The advocacy programs under Thrust 5 are an awareness program and the commissioning of independent evaluations published locally or engaging third party public sector bodies to organize workshops, discussion forums, seminars or case studies or even public hearings, briefings or consultations. The programs consist of two phases. Phase one is to provide information and phase two is to encourage participation from the target audience. Each phase is tailored to specific target audience with specific messages. Target audience is divided into eight categories that are public, schools, banks, GLCs/MNCs/Public listed companies and large enterprises, SMEs, regulatory bodies, the third sectors and government agencies.
Overall, Malaysia is already aware on climate change issue and hence, Malaysia has implemented a variety of programs to cut down emission as in the renewable energy sector. Other than emission reduction in the renewable energy sector, Malaysia also focuses on sustainable waste management, eco-tourism, eco-city, energy efficiency and others. However, Malaysia still need a support in technology and financial to further improve on climate change related issues.
Reference : Malaysia National Renewable Energy Policy
Author : Fatiha Zainal , June 2015
With 6 days to go before the COP21 takes place in Paris,
let’s do some serious talk on climate adaptation and mitigation
with Roxanne Low from Malaysian Youth Delegation.
The terms “adaptation” and “mitigation” are two important terms that are fundamental in the climate change debate. The IPCC defined adaptation as adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderate harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Similarly, Mitchell and Tanner (2006) defined adaptation as an understanding of how individuals, groups and natural systems can prepare for and respond to changes in climate or their environment. According to them, it is crucial to reducing vulnerability to climate change. While mitigation tackles the causes of climate change, adaptation tackles the effects of the phenomenon. The potential to adjust in order to minimize negative impact and maximize any benefits from changes in climate is known as adaptive capacity. A successful adaptation can reduce vulnerability by building on and strengthening existing coping strategies.
In general the more mitigation there is, the less will be the impacts to which we will have to adjust, and the less the risks for which we will have to try and prepare. Conversely, the greater the degree of preparatory adaptation, the less may be the impacts associated with any given degree of climate change. For people today, already feeling the impacts of past inaction in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, adaptation is not altogether passive, rather it is an active adjustment in response to new stimuli. However, our present age has proactive options (mitigation), and must also plan to live with the consequences (adaptation) of global warming.
The idea that less mitigation means greater climatic change and consequently requiring more adaptation is the basis for the urgency surrounding reductions in greenhouse gases. Climate mitigation and adaptation should not be seen as alternatives to each other, as they are not discrete activities but rather a combined set of actions in an overall strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Climate mitigation is any action taken to permanently eliminate or reduce the long-term risk and hazards of climate change to human life, property. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) defines mitigation as: “An anthropogenic intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases.” Climate Mitigation and Adaptation
Climate adaptation refers to the ability of a system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to cope with the consequences. The IPCC defines adaptation as the, “adjustment in natural or human systems to a new or changing environment. Adaptation to climate change refers to adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities. Various types of adaptation can be distinguished, including anticipatory and reactive adaptation, private and public adaptation, and autonomous and planned adaptation.”
This is quite a serious post,
truly reflecting how seriously climate change can affect us.
Do look foward to COP21, people,
as it’s our responsibility in addressing this serious issues.
Warmest Greetings !
In our previous post, we had insights from Mr. Richard =)
In this post, we will hear what our fellow MYD has to say on Malaysia’s stand on climate change.
Thomas – MYD15
Here, let me happily share with you some insights from Elyas Eric:
Malaysia is a developing country that’s on the brink of becoming a high-income nation. If we manage to hit our economic target by the year 2020, we will be standing on the same league as other high income countries such as Singapore. However, as we are transforming Malaysia to become a high income nation, we face substantial challenges: marrying economic development and environmental protection. Therefore, in this context, Malaysia can offer a new perspective in taking actions against climate change.
As peaceful as it is in Malaysia, we are vulnerable to climate change. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments, the past records of Malaysia climate show similar trend that has been encountered globally(Bindoff et al., 2007; Trenberth et al., 2007). Malaysia’s temperature had increased 0.18 0C per decade for over 40 years since 1951 (MOSTE, 2000). Since 1986, the average annual rise in sea level at a southern coastal site in the Peninsular Malaysia increase by approximately 1.25mm (UTM, 2007).
As a developing nation, Malaysia faces similar challenges that other developing countries are experiencing. Malaysia has overpassed the great divide in climate change negotiations: we have entered the 21st century as one of the richest countries in SEA. During COP15 in 2009, Malaysia, with support from developed countries, proposed to reduce its carbon emission to 40 per cent by the year 2020 compared with its 2005 levels, and in the same year, the National Climate Change Policy was introduced to ensure climate-resilient development and serves as a framework to mobilise and guide Government agencies, industry and communities as well as other relevant stakeholders in addressing the challenges of climate change in a concerted and holistic manner.
In pursuant to the proposal in Copenhagen, the National Corporate Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting Programme for Malaysia (known as MYCarbon), was launched on 3rd December 2013. When it comes to negotiation, we were promised many great things, and although we didn’t get the funds or technology we were promised at Copenhagen, we stuck to the pledge we made there. In the Tenth Malaysia Plan, 2011-2015, as a result of mitigation measures, we have cut the emissions intensity of our GDP by 33% of the 40% proposed in the past five year. The Eleventh Malaysia Plan, 2016-2020, will focus on climate resilient development that incorporates climate change and environmental considerations into policy and development planning, evaluation and implementation.
Listed in Non Annex I as a developing country, Malaysia has no quantitative commitments under the Kyoto Protocol at present but instead, acts as one of the observer countries. However, together with all other countries, Malaysia is already committed under the UNFCCC to combat climate change by formulating, implementing, publishing and regularly updating national and regional programmes containing measures to mitigate climate change. Under the UNFCC, Malaysia is addressing anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases.
Malaysia aims not only to graduate into the high income category by 2020, but also to shift to a new period of a low carbon economy. We are determined to get there not through rapacious consumption, but sustainable development. Asian leaders must argue for strong and effective action on climate change. Though, it is difficult to adapt to the new climate threat, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, while still pursuing economic development, nothing is impossible if everybody plays their roles.
With eight more days before COP21,
I had a chance to get some precious insights from Mr.Richard Corlett
about the coming COP21 and Malaysia…..
Mr. Richard is the Lead Author for the Asia chapter of the Working Group 2
contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).
Enjoy the read, people.
Richard T Corlett, November 22th 2015
Every climate conference is billed as the “Last chance to save the world!”, but they never are. A single meeting is not enough to save the world, and a single failure – like COP-15 in Copenhagen – is not necessarily a disaster. However, success at COP-21 in Paris really is crucial, not just because every delay makes future solutions more difficult, but because for the first time – and possibly the last – all the major players are in agreement on what needs doing. Things could still go very, very wrong in Paris, but they could also, potentially, go very, very right. Most countries have submitted ‘INDCs’ setting out what they intend to do and, while some of these are too vague or too conditional to be useful, the major players – China, the USA and the EU – have all promised substantial cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, as have many of the other significant emitters.
COP-21 is supposed to agree on cuts that will keep global warming below the dangerous threshold of 2oC. If you add up all the INDCs we won’t achieve this, even if every country keeps to its promises, with 2.7-3.0oC more likely. Moreover, the 2oC target is already too high to save coral reefs and prevent a substantial rise in sea-level, as well as a lot of other less predictable, but no less unwanted, consequences. However, even 3oC is a great deal better than the 4-6oC warming that will occur if we do nothing. Moreover, the major players have agreed on the need to review the targets every 5 years. I think this is as good as we could realistically expect from Paris.
The INDCs – Intended Nationally Determined Contributions – are voluntary and, despite calls to make the Paris agreement legally enforceable, there is no practical way to do this. Will the USA invade Canada if it continues to exploit its huge tar sand deposits? No, it won’t. So, even if world leaders reach an agreement in Paris, the ‘enforcement’ will have to come from each country’s own citizens. Only Americans can hold the next US president to an agreement that Obama signs and only Indians can make sure that India meets its targets. As global economic power shifts to Asia it will be Asians – particularly Asian youth – who must ensure that Asia does not repeat the environmental mistakes of the industrial revolution in Europe, or indeed, the more recent industrialization of China. Apart from China, the key Asian players are India, which cannot follow China’s coal-fueled road to development, and Indonesia, with massive carbon stores in forests and peat, and even more in coal, which must not end up in the atmosphere.
Malaysia is one of the very few middle-income countries that has not submitted an INDC, and joins a sad list that includes some tiny oil states (e.g. Brunei), as well as countries too poor (Nepal, Nicaragua), isolated (North Korea), or unstable (Libya, Yemen, South Sudan) to make a meaningful commitment. The absence of a clear, international commitment to reduce emissions makes it harder for Malaysians to hold their government to account, but Malaysia’s currently substantial emissions from industry and deforestation, and its ambitions for first-world status, make it essential that they do so. It is not too late for Malaysia to submit an INDC to the UN and, assuming the 5-year review period is agreed in Paris, the government needs to plan for 2020. Obvious emission-reduction targets are zero deforestation, particularly in Malaysian Borneo, and protection of the vast areas of logged and degraded forests so that they absorb carbon as they recover. For urban areas and industry, energy efficiency is a priority, plus a rapid increase in the proportion of electricity from renewable sources. These actions all have co-benefits for biodiversity and for people, so it is not just about carbon. Raising awareness is also important, but it needs to be linked to hard scientific information. Malaysians need to understand the risks they face, from warming and the less predictable changes in rainfall patterns, and how global cuts in emissions will reduce these risks. It is time for Malaysia to join the rest of the world in stopping climate change.