Mr. President, Excellencies, ladies and gentlemen,
I would like to convey our profound condolences to the people of France on the recent attacks and to express our solidarity and support in these difficult and challenging times. I would also like to take this opportunity to convey my sincere appreciation to the people of France for their warm hospitality and excellent arrangements.
In 2009 The Right Honourable Prime Minister of Malaysia Datuk Seri Najib Razak announced that Malaysia had adopted a voluntary indicator to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions intensity of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) by up to 40 per cent compared to 2005 intensity levels by 2020, conditional on receiving finance, technology transfer and capacity building from developed countries. Malaysia had incorporated measures to address the issues of climate change, environmental degradation and sustainable utilisation of natural resources under the Tenth Malaysia Plan for the period 2011-2015. This Plan had resulted in Malaysia achieving a 33 per cent reduction in emissions intensity of GDP by 2013. During this time the energy sector has been the major contributor to national GHG emissions. The sector was prioritized for mitigation action and saw the introduction of the Renewable Energy Policy and the Renewable Energy Act in 2011. The policy and Act enabled the launching of the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) mechanism to accelerate renewable energy (RE) growth in Malaysia.
The effort will be continued under the Eleventh Malaysia Plan 2016-2020 under the Green Growth Agenda. This agenda calls for strengthening the enabling environment, including policy and regulatory frameworks, human capital and green technology. In addition, investment and financial instruments will be further strengthened. The Green Growth Agenda takes a broad approach that includes conserving our biodiversity. I would like to highlight that Malaysia’s forest cover to date stands at 54.5 per cent. Here we reaffirm our commitment to maintain at least 50% level of forest and tree cover in perpetuity through “zero net deforestation and degradation” thus halting net forest loss by deforestation and stopping net decline in forest quality. This would be achieved by reforestation and enrichment of degraded lands to increase carbon sequestration and mitigate climate change effects.
This can be achieved more effectively through expanding the forest reserves and protected areas under the Heart of Borneo and the Central Forest Spine Initiatives. Currently, we have identified about 144 thousand hectares of land area that can be restored in the Central Forest Spine and 6 million hectares in the Heart of Borneo. Additionally, Malaysia has also implemented REDD+ which saw an estimated total of 97.5 million tonnes of CO2 emissions avoided through improved forest management for the period 2006 to 2010. However, our financial, technical and capacity limitations among others, can hinder our progress and efforts to manage and conserve these natural resources. In this regard, external funding can offer viable solutions.
Malaysia too is very concerned about adaptation. Programmes on flood mitigation alone have accounted for more than MYR9.3 billion in spending in the 9th and 10th Malaysia Plans. Further funding is required for the implementation of mitigation programmes from 2016 onwards. At the same time, Malaysia has developed action plans to enhance water security under the National Water Resources Policy that also needs to be implemented.
DATO SRI DR WAN JUNAIDI TUANKU JAAFAR
Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen,
Malaysia has demonstrated its commitment in addressing climate change. We would like to urge developed countries to fulfil their obligations as stipulated under the Convention which includes the COP16 decision that developing countries should receive financial resources. This obligation encompasses providing means of implementation, including technology transfer and capacity building for developing countries. Malaysia supports the centrality of the UNFCCC, the importance of equity and transparency as well as the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities (CBDR). Malaysia looks forward to the adoption of a fair and balanced agreement and urge all Parties to undertake ambitious emission reduction targets for our future generations.
“As human beings, we are vulnerable to confusing the unprecedented with the improbable. In our everyday experience, if something has never happened before, we are generally safe in assuming it is not going to happen in the future, but the exceptions can kill you and climate change is one of those exceptions.” -Al Gore
Albert Arnold “Al” Gore, Jr. is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001 under President Bill Clinton. He is well known for his work on environmental issues. On December 10, 2007, Al Gore was awarded as a Nobel Prize winner, for his unwavering dedication in combating global warming.
I believe everyone who are involved in climate change or environment activism have heard of his name. Yesterday, I had the privilege to attend a dialogue with Mr. Al Gore, along with other observer organizations. It was a day filled with wisdom, hopes and possibilities.
During his opening speech, he was pleased that the role of civil society in COP21 is the strongest among all the conferences he attended. In fact, the civil society have grown to be more engaged and representative over the years. Al Gore emphasized that it is immoral to continue emitting carbon emission and let the rest of the world suffer due to one’s actions. Private sectors, states and governments (delegates) must take the lead in curbing climate change.
Al Gore also provided insights on how the United States of America takes up rapid progress in curbing climate change despite the differences in political power. Seventy-eight percent of electric utilities that was built in the U.S in 2015 were powered by solar and wind energy. By shifting conventional energy to renewable energy, it will eventually open up possibilities for electrification of transportation. This idea could be adopted by our home country, Malaysia in the near future too. During the dialogue, there was a question asked on how to create and facilitate a soft landing in stranded assets. Many are concerned that if the environment wins the game, fossil fuel will be a total game over. All assets that are regards to fossil fuel and other finite resources will be devalued or converted to liabilities. Al-Gore replied that in order to avoid hard landing, divestment should start now but not later. People should start to discontinue in investing “hard” assets. Furthermore, he believes that the top agenda item after COP21, will be on the accessibility of green money/fund.
Al Gore also expressed his hope that green credit or funds that is affordable to be established. His hope resonates with me. Renewable energy is an excellent investment because there is minimal, in fact, almost no marginal cost aside from capital cost. Traditional energy requires the burning of fossil fuel (margin cost) to generate energy, whereas renewable energy such as solar energy does not undergo any burning, or chemical process that emits undesired side product. it is no doubt that job opportunities need to be opened to all renewable energy sector!
One of the civil society representative expressed her concern on the hard life of Arctic-ian due to climate change, fossil fuel extraction and land intrusion. Al Gore understood the challenges faced by the natives. At the same time, he expressed his gratitude to civil society for their effort in stopping the progress of drilling fossil fuel in Arctic. For those who are not aware, the smoke emitted from various industries, whether transboundary or local, is dispersed into the atmosphere, leading to the formation of black snow. Dark objects have the tendency to absorb more heat. In other words, black snow accelerate the melting process of Arctic ice. This amplifies the impact of climate change. In regard to this issue, Al Gore hopes, wishes, pledges and wants the Arctic to become a fossil fuel free and intrusion free country. My first thought after his speech: There is hope for polar bears!
On top of these, there is also a question related to how civil society can play an active role in COP. Al Gore answer is relatively straightforward. He urged the civil society to lobby their own government and provide assistance if necessary. Furthermore, youth in the room were also actively involved in the dialogue. Their questions were similar, revolving around the concern of how youth can be taken as real stakeholders, to have their voice projected and heard. In response to this, Al Gore gave his assurance to the youth that young people have been the vanguard of reformation. He advises the youth on 3 different approaches. Firstly, YOU-th need to become an activist and at the same time, win the conversation in climate change. Determination and persistence is the key to it. Next, YOU-th should embark and embrace on becoming the shifter for green and sustainable technology. YOU-th possess high consumer power and the market depend on such demand as well. Thirdly, YOU-th should actively involved in political process. Despite the external changes, such as pressure from NGOs and private sectors, change within the system is crucial and indispensable.
“Political will itself is a renewable resources”. Mr. Al Gore ended his speech with this meaningful quote that struck a responsive chord with his audience. He believed that all problems can be overcome if climate crisis is resolved. We should all learn from leaders like Al Gore. I have so much respect for this man, who took the initiative in moving forward a whole range of initiatives that have proven to be important to a country’s economic growth and environmental protection, including the improvements in educational system. He worked to try to improve the quality of life, not just in the U.S, but in a world that we all share.
The 21st session of Conference of Parties (COP21) is one of the most unique COPs ever held in the history of UNFCCC. Not only due to the urgency of achieving universal agreement on Climate but also of its uncommon opening plenary that is held on SUNDAY!
The opening plenary was graced by the presence of French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius also known for his role as the President of COP21, Christiana Figueres, executive secretary of UNFCCC, Manuel Pulgar-Vidal President COP 20 and 1,300 attendees around the globe.
Before the opening ceremony of the plenary, a minute of silence was held for Paris in response to the recent barbaric attack at Paris. It is then President COP20 highlighted the importance of finding solution in an articulated manner.
“To be effective we need clear solution. We need to be solution oriented. We also need full trust. This means – inclusiveness, transparency and efficiency of the whole process. Decision has to be solidified by the first week of COP21.” – President of COP20, Manuel
In support of the statement given by President COP20, 150 heads of state and ministers gave their opening speech at COP on 30th November 2015. The political language expressed are required to be translated into concrete mechanisms, that to be adopted and transformed into a universal agreement at the end of Paris COP21.
President of COP21, Mr. Laurent Fabias
“We have to to decide how to live on this planet together where, everyone has the access to sustainable development. My priority is to facilitate the attainment of the ambitious agreement among all countries” says, President of COP21, Fabias.
The work of ADP is to be completed by Friday, 4th Dec 2015, and have the negotiation text to be finalized by the mid of second week. If, we want to achieve a universal agreement by 11th December 2015.
Singapore – “Singapore communicates that it intends to reduce its Emissions Intensity by 36% from 2005 levels by 2030, and stabilise its emissions with the aim of peaking around 2030.” (WRI)
Indonesia – “Indonesia has committed to reduce unconditionally 26% of its greenhouse gasses against the business as usual scenario by the year 2020…Indonesia is committed to reducing emissions by 29% compared to the business as usual (BAU) scenario by 2030.”
Conditional target: “Indonesia’s target should encourage support from international cooperation, which is expected to help Indonesia to increase its contribution up to 41% reduction in emissions by 2030.” (WRI)
Thailand – Thailand intends to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 20% from the projected business-as-usual (BAU) level by 2030. The level of contribution could increase up to 25%, subject to adequate and enhanced access to technology development and transfer, financial resources and capacity building support through a balanced and ambitious global agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Cambodia – offered to cut its GHGs by 27% below 2010 levels by 2030, adding that it expects to receive help finance through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms. (CP)
Laos – Did not set an overall target, but listed a number of projects it would carry out on the condition it received international support, including increasing forest coverage, boosting renewables and implementing transport-focused NAMAS. The projects would cut around 1.8 million tonnes of CO2e annually. (CP)
Myanmar – “Myanmar would undertake mitigation actions in line with its sustainable development needs, conditional on availability of international support, as its contribution to global action to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases. The document also presents planned and existing policies and strategies which will provide the policy framework to implement identified actions and prioritise future mitigation actions.” (WRI)
The Philippines – Pledging to cut by 70% its carbon emissions by the year 2030, conditional on assistance from the international community. (Rappler)
Vietnam – pledged to keep emissions 8% below BAU levels over 2020-2030, but could increase the target to 25% with appropriate funding. Reductions would be made by cutting carbon intensity and increasing forest coverage. Vietnam adopted a green growth strategy in 2012 that foresaw linking up to the international carbon market. (CP)
Brunei – “Energy sector: to reduce total energy consumption by 63% by 2035 compared to a BusinessAsUsual (BAU) scenario; and to increase the share of renewables so that 10% of the total power generation is sourced from renewable energy by 2035. Land Transport sector: to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from morning peak hour vehicle use by 40% by 2035 compared to a business as usual scenario. Forestry sector: to increase the total gazette forest reserves to 55% of total land area, compared to the current levels of 41%.” (WRI)
Malaysia – Malaysia intends to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions intensity of GDP by 45% by 2030 relative to the emissions intensity of GDP in 2005. This consist of 35% on an unconditional basis and a further 10% is condition upon receipt of climate finance, technology transfer and capacity building from developed countries.
Title: Climate Change: An overview and state of the international negotiation
Training Brief: The presentation will focus on the history (of the UNFCCC and an update of the increasingly politicised nature of the negotiation and whether Paris will see a repeat of the Copenhagen fiasco and leave the world without a viable plan to rescue human civilisation from a climate catastrophe.
Hillary is from Third World Network a member of Climate Justice Now! Her area of expertise is to track the UN climate change talks and monitoring the development of REDD and carbon trading.
#MYD Training Series – Training on UNFCCC negotiations and media work with various climate experts, government bodies and civil society leaders, from July until Nov 2015. Each sessions will run for 2 hours and will be broadcast live on Google Hangout. Hangout will be available on YouTube for future reference. http://powershiftmalaysia.org.my/myd-training-series/
#MYD – Malaysian Youth Delegation – Malaysian youth climate movement at international United Nations climate conferences, UNFCCC, participants will be mentored and hold engagements with various climate expert bodies and dialogue with Malaysian policy makers and negotiators. http://powershiftmalaysia.org.my/category/myd2015/